Binbirkilise (modern Madenşehri and Değle/Karaman) was an ecclesiastical site in Lycaonia, apparently medieval Barata, attested as a bishopric from the 4th to the 12th century. The area contains the remains of over 40 churches, in two main groups. The majority stands in the lower town (Madenşehri) and consist primarily of vaulted basilicas with horseshoe-shaped apses of a massive ashlar construction, together with an octagonal church that strikingly corresponds to the description of a "martyrium" by Gregory of Nyssa. Those of the upper town (Değle) include cross-in-square churches of less regular masonry with decorative brickwork. Dating is difficult and disputed; it appears that the lower town flourished from the 4th to the 7th century and was reoccupied in the 9th century, while the upper town was a refuge during the Arab invasions.
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Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium