Mural Slabs from Genoese Galata

The Genoese placed a large numbers of slabs on the walls and towers of Galata to commemorate various construction phases from the early 14th century until the Ottoman conquest in 1453. These mural slabs are an important source of information on Genoese Galata, in particular on when the Genoese extended their quarters. In addition to the surviving slabs in situ or at Istanbul Archaeological Museums, several other non-extant slabs were recorded in the 19th and early 20th century. There are a total of 44 known of mural slabs, 43 of them from the pre-Ottoman era.

The earliest recorded slab, now lost, documents the establishment of the Genoese quarters in Galata in 1304, a fire in Galata in 1315 and the rebuilding of the communal palace and other structures in 1316 by Lord Montano. While the evidence is unclear, it seems that proper fortified walls began to be built around this time, despite the prohibitions of previous agreements. During this period, the arms of Palaiologos flanked by two arms of Genoa were placed at the non-extant İç Azap Gate. Placing the arms of Palaiologos at the center was meant to honor and recognize the authority of the Byzantine emperor. By the mid-14th century, it seems that the Genoese no longer used the arms of Palaiologos.

The Genoese expanded and fortified their quarters towards the hill where they built Galata Tower in 1348. Evidence from an inscription of a lost slab suggests that the area around Galata Tower was enclosed with walls the following year. The dates recorded on later slabs suggest that the Genoese acquired the northwestern district in 1387, the western district Spiga in 1397, and the eastern district Lagirio around 1400, though they might have controlled Spiga by 1351 and Lagirio in 1376. Repairs made to the wall in 1390-1391 were likely made in expectation of an Ottoman attack, though the blockade of Bayezid I halted defensive constructions until 1435. The Milanese occupation of Genoa in 1421-1435 likely slowed addition of defensive construction. The last known pre-Ottoman slab records work in 1452 supported by Pope Nicholas V (1447-1455), who was of Genoese origin.    

Written with the help of Dr. Sercan Sağlam

Location of Genoese slabs by Saglam

List of slabs by chronological order

Image from Hasluck

1) Lost slab with inscription (1316)

MEN ⋮ IMPERANTE ⋮ SERENISSIMO ⋮ | D(OMI)NO ⋮ D(OMI)NO ⋮ ANDRONICO ⋮ PALEO- | LOGO ⋮ DEI ⋮ GRA(TIA) ⋮ IMPERATORE ⋮ RO- | MEORU(M) ⋮ M ⋮ CCC ⋮ III ⋮ EDIFICATA ⋮ FUIT ⋮ | PEYRA ⋮ ET ⋮ M ⋮ CCC ⋮ XV ⋮ CO(M)BUSTA ⋮ FUIT ⋮ | MEDIETAS ⋮ PEYRE ⋮ CU(M) ⋮ ECCL(ES)IA ⋮ PALA- | CIO ⋮ CO(MMUN)IS ⋮ ET ⋮ M ⋮ CCC ⋮ XVI ⋮ T(EM)P(O)RE ⋮ PO- | TESTACIE ⋮ D(OMI)NI ⋮ MO(N)TANI ⋮ D(E) ⋮ MARINIS ⋮ | REDIFICATA ⋮ FUIT ⋮ PEYRA ⋮ QUI ⋮ D(OMI)N(U)S ⋮ | MONTAN(I) ⋮ REDIFICARI ⋮ FECIT ⋮ PALA- | CIUM ⋮ PLATEA(M) ⋮ LOGIE ⋮ HOSPITALE ⋮ | ET ⋮ DOMU(S) ⋮ PONDERIS ⋮ CO(MMUN)IS ⋮ ET ⋮ ECI- | AM ⋮ EXGRA(TIA) ⋮ SIBI ⋮ CONCESSA ⋮ A DIC- | TO ⋮ SERENISSIMO ⋮ IMP(ERA)ATORE ⋮ DO- | MOS ⋮ IUXTA ⋮ FOSSATA ⋮ CIRCA ⋮ TERRA(M) ⋮ | PEYRE ⋮ DILIGITE ⋮ IUSTICIA(M) ⋮ QUI ⋮ IU- | DICATIS ⋮ TERRA(M) ⋮ AUDI ⋮ ADVERSAM ⋮ | PARTE(M) ⋮ ANTE ⋮ QUA(M) ⋮ FERAS ⋮ SE(N)TE(N)CIAM ⋮ 

The most serene reigning ruler, Lord Andronikos Palaiologos, by the grace of God, Emperor of Rome established Pera in 1303. The half of Pera was burnt in 1315 with the church and the communal palace. In 1316, during his podestàship, Lord Montano De Marini restored Pera that Lord Montano rebuilt the communal palace, marketplace, loggia, hospital, and the weigh house. Furthermore, houses next to moats around the land of Pera were granted as a favor by the most serene emperor himself. Love justice, you judges of the earth! Listen to the opposite party before ratifying judgments!

2) Lost slab with arms of De Merude, Genoa and De Marini (c. 1316)

Image from Eyice

4) Slab with Byzantine Imperial Emblem (c. 1304-1316)

Four betas: βασιλεὺς βασιλέων, βασιλεύων βασιλευόντων

King of Kings, Ruling over Rulers

3-5) Three adjacent marble slabs with arms of Palaiologos and Genoa (c. 1304-1316)

From nonextant İç Azap Gate, now at Istanbul Archaeological Museums (Inv. no. 973a, 973b and 974)

Images from Rossi

Image from Belin

6) Lost Slab with Byzantine imperial emblem and the arms of Genoa (1335)

7) Lost slab with inscription

+ D(OMI)N(U)S ⋮ LA(N)FRANCUS ⋮ BRANCHELEO-

 NIS ⋮ ABAS ⋮ CO(MMUN)IS ⋮ ET ⋮ POPULI ⋮ PEIRE ⋮ 

HEDIFICHARI ⋮ FECIT ⋮ PALATIU(M) ⋮ IST-

UD ⋮ DE ⋮ PECUNIA ⋮ CO(MMUN)IS ⋮ PEYRE ⋮ IN ⋮ T(EM)P(O)R(E) ⋮ 

D(OMI)NI ⋮ CO(N)STA(N)TINI ⋮ AURIE ⋮ POTESTATIS ⋮ 

PEIRE ⋮ ET ⋮ TOTIUS ⋮ IMPERII ⋮ ROMA-

NIE ⋮ M · CCC ⋮ XXX ⋮ VIII · DIE ⋮ PRIMA SE-

 PTEMBRIS ⋮ 

Lord Lanfranco Brancaleoni, public abbot and citizen of Pera built this palace of communal funds with Pera in the time of Lord Costantino Doria, the podestà of Pera and the whole Roman Empire. First of September 1338.

Image from Belgrano

8) Detail of the Tower of St. Nicholas and its slab

+ M · CCC · XXXXVIIII | S(ANCTUS) NI | COLAU(S) | P(RO) S(ALUTE) R(EIPUBLICAE)

+1349. St. Nicholas. For the welfare of the Republic!

9) Lost slab with arms of Genoa and Palaiologos (c. 1400)

10) Lost slab with arms of De Merude

+ AD ⋮ HONOREM ⋮ DEI ⋮ ET ⋮ GLO- | RIOXE ⋮ BEATE ⋮ MARIE ⋮ VIRGINIS ⋮ (ET?) | BEATO ⋮ IOH(ANN)ES ⋮ BATISTA ⋮ HOC ⋮ OPUS ⋮ | FEIERI ⋮ FECIT ⋮ DISSCRETO ⋮ D(OMI)NO ⋮ PH- | ILIPPO ⋮ DE ⋮ MERUDE ⋮ IN M ⋮ CCC ⋮ LXX ⋮ | II ⋮ DIE ⋮ ULTIMA ⋮ IULII ⋮

+ To honor the God and glorious St. Mary the Virgin and St. John the Baptist, this work was done by the discreet lord Filippo De Merude on the last day of July, 1372.

Genoese slab with Saint Michael the Arch

11) Slab with St. Michael the Archangel flanked by arms of Genoa and Doria

From first tower northwest of Galata Tower, now at Istanbul Archaeology Museums (Inv. no. 954)

 

+ M · CCC · LXXX VII · DIE · XXV · MARCII HOC OP(US) | FACT(UM) · FUIT T(EM)P(O)R(E) NOB(I)L(IS) | D(OMI)NUS · RAFAEL · D(E) · AUR(IA) | POT(ESTAS) · PEIRE

+ March 25, 1387. This work was done during the time of the noble lord Raffaele Doria, podestà of Pera.

Genoese Slab with Doria, Genoese and De

12) Slab with arms of Doria, Genoa and De Merude above Harip Gate (c. 1386-1387)

Image from Belgrano

13) Slab with arms of Genoa, flanked by two arms of Bonavey

From northern rectangular tower of Spiga, now at Istanbul Archaeology Museums (Inv. no. 951)

+ M CCC ⋮ LXXXX ⋮ VII ⋮ (1397)

Image from Belgrano

14) Slab with arms of Genoa flanked by two arms of Sauli

From second tower east of Galata Tower, now at Istanbul Archaeology Museums (Inv. no. 965)

+ TURRIS ⋮ ISTA ⋮ FUIT ⋮ FACTA ⋮ TEM- | PORE ⋮ REGIMINIS ⋮ EGREGII ⋮ VIRI ⋮ | D(OMI)NI ⋮ IOHAN(N)IS ⋮ SAULI ⋮ HONORABILIS ⋮ | POTESTATIS ⋮ PEYRE ⋮ M CCCC IIII ⋮ | DIE ⋮ PRIMA ⋮ NOVEMBRIS ⋮

+ This tower was built during the governance of the nobleman Lord Giovanni Sauli, the honorable podestà of Pera. First of November 1404

15) Slab with arms of Fregoso (Campofregoso), Genoa, and Doria

From area of non-extant Havyar Han, now at Istanbul Archaeology Museums (Inv. no. 2405)

+ HIC · MURUS · CONSTRUCT(US) · FUIT · M · CCCC · XVIII · TEMPOR(E)

POTESTACIE · (SPECTAB)ILI(S) · D(OMI)NI · THEDISII · D(E) · AURIA

This wall was constructed in 1418 during the podestàship of admirable lord Tedisio Doria

Images from Rossi

Image from Belgrano

16) Slab with relief of St. Bartholomew, two arms of Genoa and two arms of Spinola (c. 1423, 1427-28, or 1440-42)

From third tower northwest of Galata Tower, now at Istanbul Archaeology Museums (Inv. no. 953)

S(ANCTUS) · ⋮ BARTOL(OMAEUS) / St. Bartholomew

17) Lost slab with inscription

AD HONOREM DEI · ET BEATE MARIAE VIRGINIS | · ­ET BEATI FRANCISCI · HOC OPUS | FIERI FECIT REV(ERENDISSI)MUS D(OMI)N(U)S GIFFREDUS | CICALLA DEI GRATIA EPISCOPUS CAFFEN(SIS) | · OLIM PROFESSUS IN ORDINE MINORUM  | · PRO CUIUS AEDIFICII PRAEMIO | DETUR SIBI VITA AETERNA · AMEN | · M · CCCC · XX · VI · DIE I AUGUSTI · INDICTIONE III | · SECUNDUM CURSUM JANU(AE) ·

To honor God and St. Mary the Virgin and St. Francis, this work was done by the most reverend lord Goffredo Cicalla, by the grace of God, Bishop of Caffa, formerly teacher in the Order of Friars Minor. For the ones of this building, let the reward of eternal life be granted. Amen. First of August 1426. Indiction 3, according to the course of Genoa.

18) Lost slab with inscription

+ AD · HONOREM · DEI · ET · SANTISSIME · VISITACIONIS | VIRGINI(S) · MARIE · ET · BEATISIMI · PATRIS · NOSTRI · BENE- | DICTI · HOC · MONASTERIU(M) · FUNDATU(M) · FUIT · M · CCCC · XX · | VII · DIE · XII · MADII · T(EM)P(O)R(E) · BEATISI(MI) · D(OMINI) · D(OMINI) · N(OST)RI ·  PAPE · M(ARTINUS) · V · + ·

+ To honor the God, and the holiest visitation of the Virgin Mary, and our blessed father Benedict, this monastery was founded on the twelfth of May 1427, during the time of the blessed lord, our master Pope Martin V.

Images from Rossi

19) Slab with defaced arms of Genoa, defaced arms, and arms of De Franchi

From between Kireç and Eğri gates (later at Çengelköy), now lost

DE · FRA(N)CIS · GALATE · FILIP(PUS) · DIGNE · POT(EST)AS | LITORIA · MENIA · BURGI · CO(M) · URBE  · (CON)IUNXIT | TERDENIS · P(OST) · MILLE · LABENTIBUS · ANNIS | ET · QUADRI(N)GE(N)TIS · QUO · XPS (=CHRISTUS) · NOS · REPARAVIT

Filippo De Franchi, the worthy podestà of Galata, linked shore walls of the borough to the city thirty years after a thousand and four hundred passed [1430], where Christ made us redeemed.

Image from Belgrano

 20) Slab with defaced arms

From between Kireç and Eğri gates, now in Istanbul Archaeology Museums

+ M · CCCC · (XXX · I) | ITALICUM · IUBAR · LUX · Q(UO)R(UM) · DUX · MEDIOLAN(ORUM) | GAUDEAT · ERG(O) · IAN(UA) · Q(UE) · SUB · TA(N)TO · DUCE · GUBE(R)NAT | IUBE(N)TE · P(RE)SIDE · PEIRE · DE · FRA(N)CIS · POT(EST)ATE · FILIPO

+ 1431. The Duke of Milan, who is the shining light of Italy, therefore rejoiced Genoa, which is governed under such a great duke. Podestà Filippo de Franchi, commanding and governing Pera.

21) Lost slab with arms of Genoa, defaced arms, and arms of De Franchi

+ HAE · TUR(R)I(S) · (CON)STRUCTA · SUB · LUCE · CLARA · A TUTA · | ROTONDA · TOTA · SUPERBA · TENDENS · AD · ALT(US?) · | IUBENTE · DIGNO · D(E) · FRANCIS · POTESTATE · FILIPO · | M · CCCC | XXXI

+ These towers were constructed under the bright light from the protected sphere of proud efforts, from the commanding promoter Filippo De Franchi, the worthy podestà. 1431.

22) Lost slab with inscription (c.1432-1433?)

"SPECTABIL(IS) · NOBIL(IS) · ILLARIUS · IMPERIALIS · POT(EST)AS · PERE"

The admirable and noble podestà of Pera, Ilario Imperiale.

23) Lost slab with inscription

 

+ M · CCCC · XXX · V · TE(M)PORE · SPECTA-

 BILI(S) · D(OMI)NI · STEPHANI · D(E) · MARINI(S) · POT(EST)AT(IS)

 +1435. The time of the admirable lord Podestà Stefano De Marini.

24) Slab with arms of Genoa, defaced arms, and arms of De Marini

From western coastal wall, now at Istanbul Archaeology Museums (Inv. no. 971)

+ M · CCCC · XXX · V · TE(M)PORE · SPECTA-

BILI(S) · D(OMI)NI · STEPHANI · D(E) · MARINI(S) · POT(EST)AT(IS)

+1435. The time of the admirable lord Podestà Stefano De Marini.

Image from Belgrano

Genoese Slab with defaced arms flanked b

25) Slab with inscription, defaced arms, flanked by arms of Genoa and De Marini

In situ, on the western coastal wall

+ YHS • IN • M • CCCC • XXXV • PER • SPE-
CTABILE(M) • DO(M)INU(M) • STEPHANU(M) • D(E) • MA-
RINI(S) • POT(EST)ATE(M) • (CON)DITU(S) • FUIT • MURU(S) • ISTE
+ HIS (Jesus). In 1435, the admirable lord Podestà Stefano De Marini built this wall.

26) Lost slab with inscription

+ M · CCCC · XXX · VIII · P(RIMA) · AUGUSTI · (TEMPORE?) · 

SPECTABILIS · D(OMI)NI · IOHANIS ·  LEVANTO

+ First of August 1438. The time of the admirable lord Giovanni Levanto.

27) Lost slab with inscription

M · CCCC · XXXXII · TEMPORE · SPECTABI-

LIS · DOMINI · JOHANIS · DE · LEVANTO ·  · 

1442. The time of the admirable lord Giovanni de Levanto.

Image from Belgrano

28) Slab with arms of Fregoso, Genoa and Spinola

From easternmost corner tower of eastern annexation, now at Istanbul Archaeology Museums

SPECTABIL(IS) (ET) NOBILIS · D(OMI)N(U)S | NICOLAUS · ANTHONI(US) · SPINUL(A) | POT(EST)AS · PERE · HOC · OPUS · FIERI | IUBSIT · M · CCCC · XXXXI · DIE · X | · AUGUST(I) ·

The admirable and noble lord Nicolo Antonio Spinola, podestà of Pera ordered this work to be done. Tenth of August 1441.

Genoese slab with Fregoso, Genoese, and

29) Slab with arms of Fregoso, Genoa, and Spinola

From fourth tower northwest of Galata Tower, now at Istanbul Archaeology Museums (Inv. no. 961)

 

+ SPECTABIL(IS) · ET · NOBILIS · VIR · DOMINUS | NICOLAUS · ANTONIUS · SPINULLA · Q(UO)NDAM · D(OMI)NI | THOME · POTESTA(S) · PERE · (ET) · IANUENSIU(M) · IN · TO- | TO · IMPERIO · ROMANIE · CONSTRUI · FECIT · HANC | TURRI(M) · (ET) IN PAUCI(S) · DIEBU(S) · CO(N)STRUC(IONIS) · M · CCCC · XXXX · II | DIE · VIIII · MAY

+ The admirable and noble man, Lord Nicolo Antonio Spinola, the son of the deceased Lord Tomaso, the podestà of Pera and Genoa within the whole Roman Empire constructed this tower in a few days. Ninth of May 1442.

Image from Belgrano

30) Slab with arms of Fregoso, Genoa, and Spinola

From second tower northwest of Galata Tower, now at Istanbul Archaeology Museum (Inv. no. 963)

+ SPECTABIL(IS) (ET) NOBIL(IS) · VIR · D(OMI)N(I)S · NICOLAU(S) | ANTH(ONIU)S · SPINULA · POTEST(AS) · PEIR(E) (ET) IANUEN- | SIU(M) · IN TOTO · IMP(ER)IO · ROMANIE · T(EM)P(O)RE · SU(I) | REGIMIN(IS) · ANNI · S(ECON)DI · IUXIT · HANC S(ECON)DAM | TURI(M) · (CON)STRUI · M · CCCC · XXXXII · DIE · XX · O- | CT(OBRIS) · MANDAN(S) · VOCHARI · S(ANCTAM) · MARIAM · +

+The admirable and noble man, Lord Nicolo Antonio Spinola, Podestà of the Genoese Pera in the whole Roman Empire constructed this second tower during the second year of his governorship. Twenthieth of 1442. Confiding in the invoked St. Mary. +

31) Lost slab with arms of Spinola

Image from Rossi

32) Slab with relief of the Virgin Mary and the Christ Child flanked by two saints

From second tower northwest of Galata Tower, now at Istanbul Archaeology Museums (Inv. no. 912)

Genoese Slab with the Virgin Mary and th

33) Slab with the Virgin Mary and the Christ Child, flanked by two saints (c.1442)

From fourth tower northwest of Galata Tower, now at Istanbul Archaeology Museums (Inv. no. 911)

34) Lost slab with three coats of arms (c. 1443)

Genoese slab with Adorno, Genoese, and G

35) Slab with arms of Adorno, Genoa, and Grimaldi

Now at Istanbul Archaeology Museums (Inv. no. 962)

+ HEC · TURRIS · FUIT · PERFICTA · TE- | MPORE · SPECTABILI(S) · D(OMI)NI · BORUELI(S) | DE · GRIMALDIS · M · CCCC · XXXXIII ·

+ This tower was completed during the time of the admirable lord Boruel de Grimaldi, 1443.

Image from Belgrano

36) Slab with arms of Adorno, Genoa, and Maruffo

From tower near Tophane Gate, now at Istanbul Archaeology Museum

+ M · CCCC · XXXXV · COMPLETA · EST | HEC · TURRIS · TEMPORE · POTESTAC- |

IE · SPECTABILI(S) · D(OMI)NI · BALDASARIS · M- | ARRUFI · DE · MENSE · MAII ·

1445. This tower was completed during the podestàship of the admirable lord Baldassare Maruffo in the month of May.

Image from Belgrano

37) Slab with arms of Adorno, Genoa, and Maruffo

From Mumhane Gate, now at Istanbul Archaeology Museum

YHS · · M CCCC · · XXXXVI · · MAY | EREXIT · PRETOR · MARRUFFUS · BALDASAR · ISTA · | MENIA · PLUS · ALIIS · NOBILE · FECIT · OPUS · | GRANDIS · IS · ASPECTU · FORMOSU(S) · HUMAN(US) · HABU(N)DA(NS) | ELOQVIO · INGENIO · IUSTICIAQUE · PARI | HEC · SIBI · SERVABU(N)T · ROMANU(M) · MUNERA · NOMEN | CUNQUE · DIIS · DIVVM · CUMQUE · CELEBRE · VIR(IS)

IHS (Jesus) May, 1446. The chief Baldassare Maruffo erected these walls and created a more noble work than others. Being great by sight, beautiful, well-mannered and full of eloquence, ingenuity and even justice, this [work] will keep honoring his Roman name with divine deities renowned amongst men.

Image from Belgrano

38) Slab with arms of Adorno, Genoa, and Maruffo

From Kireç Gate, now Istanbul Archaeology Museum

Inscription from text written by Cyriacus of Ancona

ΑΓΑΘΗΙ ΤΥΧΗΙ | BALTASARI · B · F(ILIO) · MARUFO · GALATEAEH · VIVS · BIZAN- | TIANAE · PERAE · THRAE(ICIO) · IN · BOSPHORO · CLARISSIMAE | GENUENSIUM · COLONIAE · B(ENE) · M(ERENTI) · PRAETORI | QUI · MAGISTRATUM · QUEM · SUSCEPERAT · DIGNE · GERENDO | SUBURBANIS · HAC · IN PARTE · MOENIBUS · AMPLIATIS · ET · AD | CHRISTEAM · TURRIM · A NAVISTATIO · PRISCAE · ALTITUDINIS | DUPLO COLLATIS · COLON(IAM) · IPSAM · TUTIOREM · EXIMIE · PROPA- | GATAM  EXORNATAMQ(UE) · FORE · CURAVIT | GENUENSES · AC · SUBURBANI · GALATEI CIVES COLONIQVE DEDERE | YHS M (CCCC XXXX V)

Good fortune! Baldassare Maruffo, the son of Baldassare, the meritorious leader of the Byzantine Galata, Pera of Thrace on the Bosporus, the illustrious Genoese colony, which entrusted him the worthy magistrate extended the suburb walls in this part and doubled their previous height from the Tower of Christ until the ship anchorage, and ensured the colony exceptionally safe, extended and adorned. [This slab] was dedicated to the Genoese as citizens and colonists of Galata suburbs. IHS (Jesus). 1445.

Image from Belgrano

39) Slab with arms of Fregoso, Genoa, and De Fazio

From near Tophane Gate, now at Istanbul Archaeology Museums

+ SPECTABILIS · ET · EGREGIUS · DOMI(N)US

LUCHINUS · DE  · FACIO · POT(EST)AS · HOS · MUROS

CONSTRUI · FECIT · M · CCCC · XXXXVII

+The admirable and noble lord Podestà Luchino De Fazio constructed these walls. 1447.

Image from Rossi

40) Slab with arms of Fregoso, Genoa, De Fazio, and De Merude

​ From near Kireç Gate (later Çengelköy), now lost

+ SPECTABILIS · D(OMI)N(I)S · LUCHINUS

DE · FACIO · POTESTAS · PEI(RE)

HEC · MENIA · COMPLERI · FECIT

ANNO · D(OMI)NI  · M CCCC XXXX VII

+ The admirable lord Luchino De Fazio, podestà of Pera completed these walls in the year of the Lord 1447.

DSC_5596.jpg

41) Slab with De Fazio coat of arms (1446-1447?)

At the Palazzo Comunale (Bereket Han)

Image from Belgrano

42) Slab with arms of Fregoso, Genoa, and Vivaldi

From Havyar Han, now at Istanbul Archaeology Museum

(SUB · FELICI · DOMINIO · I)LL(USTRIS) · D(OMINI) · IANI · D(E) · CAMPOF(REGOSO)

(IANUENSIUM · DUCIS · DIGNIS)SI(MI) · REGENTE · SPECTABIL(I)

(DOMINO · BENEDICTO · DE · VIVAL)DIS POT(EST)ATE · PERE ·

(M · CCCC · XXXX · VIII · DIE) · XX · DECEMBRIS

Under the happy reign of the illustrious lord Giano de Campofregoso, the worthiest doge of Genoa, and the admirable lord Benedetto Vivaldi, podestà of Pera. Twentieth of December 1448.

Genoese slab with Papal insignia, Fregos

43) Slab with Papal insignia and arms of Genoa flanked by arms of Fregoso and Lomellini

From semicircular lower wall before Galata Tower, now at Istanbul Archaeology Museums (Inv. no. 950)

+ M CCCC LII + DIE P(RIM)A APRILIS | NICOLAUS PAPA Q(UI)NTUS JANUEN(SIS) | TEMPORE • S(PECTABILIS) • D(OMINI) • ANGELI IOH(ANN)IS  LOM- | ELINI POTESTATIS PERE SUB DUC(ATU) • ILL(USTRIS) • | • D(OMINI) • D(OMINI) PETRI D(E) CAMPOFR(EGOSO) JAN(UE) • DUCIS •⋮•
+ First of 1452. Pope Nicholas V of Genoa. During the time of the admirable lord Angelo Giovanni Lomellini, podestà of Pera, under the duchy of the illustrious ruler Lord Pietro de Campofregoso, Doge of Genoa.

Image from Hasluck

44) Slab with Testa coat of arms with Italian style horse-head escutcheon

M · D · XIII ·

MENIA · H | ÆC · TERE-

MOTV · DIRVTA · D(OMI)N(U)S · AN-

DREAS · TESTA · EX · PROP-

RIO · ÆRE · REFABRICAVIT.

1513. The earthquake had demolished these walls and Lord Andrea Testa rebuilt them with his own money.

Sources

Urban Palimpsest at Galata & An Architectural Inventory Study for the Genoese Colonial Territories in Asia Minor by Sercan Saglam

Documenti riguardanti la colonia Genovese di Pera by LT Belgrano

Histoire de la Latinité de Constantinople by FA Belin

“Le Lapidi Genovesi delle Mura di Galata” Iscrizioni Genovesi in Crimea ed in Costantinopoli by E. Ross

“Dr. Covel's Notes on Galata” by FW Hasluck

“Genoese Heraldry and Inscriptions at Amastra” by FW Hasluck

“Palazzo del Comune des Genois a Pera” by S. Eyice

Resources

Galata Album (Byzantine Legacy Flickr)

Galata Tower and Walls of Galata Album (Byzantine Legacy Flickr)

Istanbul Archaeological Museums (Byzantine Legacy Flickr)

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